Traffic signals & systems
The majority of traffic signals along major arterial routes such as Springfield and Glenmore roads are coordinated to maximize green time. Signals are programmed at a reference point allowing the lion's share of traffic travelling along the main, at a certain speed, generally hitting a "green wave" or "green band." However, most signals are vehicle and pedestrian activated.
Signals along Highway 97 and Highway 33 are controlled and maintained by the province's Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure. We work closely with the province to optimize signal performances in street approaches along the highway.
Push button on the signal pole when you want to cross the street. This will activate the "start crossing" signal (a person walking). The signal will not appear more quickly if you push the button more than once or hold it down.
Your wait depends on when in the signal cycle you pushed the button. "Walk" displays for 8 seconds which is when pedestrians should start to cross.
"Don't Walk" flashes from 10-25 seconds allowing pedestrians to finish crossing, depending on the length of the crossing and ability of those using the crosswalk.
Kelowna's signal system is programmed for safety and efficiency and has a systematic purpose.
Solar powered pedestrian crossing signals are in place in numerous locations around the city.
Solar powered pedestrian warning flashers are in place in several locations around the city and they are intended to advise motorists that pedestrians are attempting to cross the road. These devices are used where a full traffic signal or pedestrian signal is not warranted.
Loops (also know as detectors) are in place at signalized intersections
Loops are located just before the stop bar
Stop behind stop bars at red lights. Loops can detect the presence of vehicles and let the controller know that vehicles are waiting. Stopping behind the bar ensures that the controller "senses" your car and keeps the crosswalk clear for pedestrians.
In an effort to improve safety in high-risk intersections, ICBC has introduced a provincial wide red light camera program. The program places intersection safety cameras (commonly known as red light cameras) at five of the highest risk intersections in Kelowna to deter drivers from running red lights. The cameras are found on Harvey Avenue at Banks, Spall, Cooper and Gordon roads as well as at the intersection of Dilworth Drive and Springfield Road. The goal of the program is to prevent crashes, injuries and fatalities. Ticket revenue is distributed among all municipalities across B.C. to enhance their policing and community-based public safety programs. Visit icbc.com for more information about the Intersection Safety Camera program.
Traffic and pedestrian signals are implemented on a warrant system, based on the guidelines of the Transportation Association of Canada (TAC) . The City performs turning movement counts at major intersections and applies these numbers to the warrant process. The highest scoring intersections are considered for traffic signals.
Other criteria that are used to determine the need for traffic signals include; delay to side street traffic, collision history, pedestrian activity/delay.
The City of Kelowna employs some of the most technically advanced traffic signal hardware (traffic controllers) available. All City traffic signals, except for the intersection of Bernard Avenue/Water Street, are fully-actuated. Fully-Actuated signals have vehicle detectors for all traffic lanes and pedestrian push buttons for all crosswalks. Full-actuation allows the signal controller to apply green time to the highest demand, even if that demand changes throughout the day.
Vehicles are detected by electromagnetic wires (loops), which are imbedded in the pavement, behind the stop line. Video detection is also widely employed. Video detection allows greater flexibility if there are intersection changes. The size or location of the detection zone can be changed or we can add/delete lanes and there is no possibility of wires in the pavement breaking or being cut.
Pedestrians are detected by the pedestrian push-buttons. When pushed, a message is sent to the traffic controller, requesting a change to the signal indication and to bring up the pedestrian walk signal and allow pedestrians sufficient time to cross the street. The button only needs to be pushed once. Repeated pushing will not expedite the walk phase. The walk indication will only come on after the current green phase is serviced unless there is no call to the side street.
The light for the vehicles and the pedestrian indication operate independent of each other. If a pedestrian has not pushed the button, the pedestrian walk phase will not come up. At fully actuated intersections, a pedestrian must push one of the pedestrian push buttons to receive a "Walk" signal. When a button is pushed, a pedestrian will receive a "Walk" signal with sufficient time to cross the major road. If a button is not pressed and the traffic control signals respond to a vehicle only, a green signal will be displayed along with a "Don't Walk" indication for pedestrians. The length of this green signal will likely be considerably shorter than the required walk time for a pedestrian because the length of the green signal is variable, based on the vehicle demand only and vehicles don't take nearly as long to cross the intersection.
We use this type of operation to maximize the efficiency of the intersection. It serves to minimize delay for the relatively heavier volume of traffic on the major road. It is the City’s practice to always install pedestrian information signs, which describe this operation at these types of intersections.
Some pedestrians misunderstand the “Flashing Don’t Walk” or "Helping Hand" display feature. This feature is intended to warn pedestrians who have not started to cross that there is not enough walk time left to start and complete their crossing safely. If they have started to cross and the "Helping Hand" indication appears, there is still sufficient time to complete their crossing. The duration of the "Helping Hand" indication is included in the calculation of the pedestrian walk time. Where this feature is installed, it is augmented with information signs to explain the operation.
Pedestrian walk times are calculated based on the walking speed of a typical adult (1.2 metres per second). At locations with high percentages of senior citizens or children, walk speeds are reduced to 1.00 metres per second to accommodate a slower walking speed.
Left-turn advance signals can be programmed to operate during specific periods of the day but typically will come up based on traffic demand.
The development of signal timing is a delicate “balancing act”, where the City tries to allocate movement fairly to all directions, based on typical and observed demand. In some cases, the City would prefer a longer left-turn priority feature but often is constrained by high traffic volumes arriving at the intersection from other directions. For instance, if we add more time onto a left-turn priority feature we must remove “green” time from other traffic movements. After all, a sixty second cycle length only has 60 seconds, regardless of how it is allocated. Think about it this way; in 10 seconds we can typically accommodate four left-turning vehicles. If we are holding up two lanes of opposing traffic, this same amount of time applied to that through traffic can accommodate up to 12 vehicles.
If I back up and drive forward again, the signal will change quicker
This does not work. Once you trigger the detector, it tells the controller that you are waiting. Nothing else is required.
If I get out of my car and push the pedestrian button, the green light comes on quicker
If the traffic control signals are functioning properly, the pedestrian push-button does not make the green indication appear sooner. However, it can make the green light longer at some signals, since the pedestrian walk time is usually longer than the green time. However, this also causes extra delay to the traffic on the other approaches.
Vehicle detection is by pressure or weight sensor
This has never been the case. The cuts in the asphalt are for the 'loop' detectors. Loop detectors are very sensitive and will also detect bicycles if they are above the wire, not in the centre of the loop. You must be behind the stop line in order to activate this detector.